Frameworks & Models

OTs use various types of models and frames of reference when treating clients to facilitate clinical thinking based on theories and guides for performing intervention (Boyt-Schell et al., 2014).

Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement (CMOP-E)

(Retrieved from

Ecology of Human Performance


(Taylor & Davis, 2007)

Health Equity Promotion Model 

According to Fredriksen-Goldsen and colleagues, the Health Equity Promotion Model is focused on supporting disadvantaged populations such as the LGBTQ+ population (2014). The Health Equity Promotion Model draws on two previous models; the Stress Process Model and the Minority Stress Model (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014). 

(Fredriksen-Goldsen et al. 2014)

KAWA Model

(Retrieved from 

Minority Stress Model

The Minority Stress Model highlights that minority populations face increased problems in mental health secondary to discrimination, internalized homophobia, and expectations of rejection from society (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014). This model is evident in healthcare settings where health professionals are not culturally competent in learning about LGBTQ+ needs. Bias, such as religious affiliations and personal beliefs may also interfere with clinicians providing quality care for their patients. In turn, patients who identify as LGBTQ+ will experience stress that ultimately affects their overall well-being. In 2014, a group of researchers utilized the Minority Stress Model as well as their research and came up with a new theory that was named the Health Equity Promotion Framework (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014). This framework suggests that societal norms, such as bias towards heterosexual individuals, along with structural factors that cause oppression, significantly disadvantages those who identify as LGBTQ+ (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014). 

Model of Human Occupation (MOHO)

 The MOHO is one of the most commonly used models within OT practice worldwide (National Board for the Certification in Occupational Therapy, 2004; Wilkeby et al., 2006). This model provides a theory on how occupations are chosen, patterned, and performed by conceptualizing individuals as being composed of three interacting components: volition, habituation, and performance capacity (Boyt-Schell et al., 2014). Volition refers to an individual's personal causation, interests, and values that form their motivation to choose and participate in activities. Habituation refers to the habits and roles which structure an individual's everyday patterns and routines. Furthermore, this model suggests that participation in all occupations results from these components interacting with characteristics within the individual's physical and social environment (Boyt-Schell et al., 2014).

Person-Environment-Occupational Model (PEO)

Person-Environment-Occupational-Performance Model (PEOP)

This model argues that occupational performances of clients are influenced by a transactional relationship between domains such as cultural, social, and institutional environments as well as psychological, physiological, behavioral, cognitive, neural, and spiritual personal factors (Cole & Tufano, 2008). It is based on the idea that individuals have an innate drive to explore their environment and to exhibit mastery within it. Successful occupational performance is reached when an individual is able to perform skills that meet their needs by utilizing available resources or adaptation within their environment (Cole & Tufano, 2008).   


A modeling system used to determine the different levels of intervention

Developed by clinical psychologist, Jack Annon, in 1974

One of the most referenced models

Primarily used by one practitioner Variety of settings

  • Sexual participation and intimacy

Recognition Model

Aims to support a team approach

Open discussion

Using strengths and skills of each team member

Aims to address perceived limitations of PLISSIT Model

Stress Process Model  

The Stress Process Model emphasizes the strong influences of stress factors and traumatic life events that shape the inequalities on the mental health of underprivileged populations (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014). According to the Stress Process Model, unexpected transitions in life, trauma, and an underclass status strongly influence health and well-being (Fredriksen-Goldsen et al., 2014).